Convection Center


Development of convention centers, sports facilities, and performing arts venuesare increasingly acknowledged for role in stimulating local economies and improving the quality of life of citizens.

Conference and business tourism is a very important sector of the global tourism industry

Booming convention market necessitates creation of not merely a convention Centre but a convention destination with exhibition facilities, shopping plazas, cluster of hotels, and backward – forward linkages with international airport, mass transit systems and adequate parking which must serve the burgeon­ ing MICE industries too

Multi-functional Building- designed to hold a convention, individuals and groups gather to promote and share common interests.


Designed, for purpose of conducting meetings, rallies, or seminars. Adopted for specific events, such as appearances by well-known speakers or musicians.

Receives guests from local, national and international markets.

The MICE Industry ( Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhi­bitions)

Represents a sector of tourism which includes business events and activities

The Incentives part of MICE is the odd one out though it is related to business, provided to employees or dealers/distributer as a reward, tends to be leisure based.

Major Convention Center elements

Arrival Zone

Site access should provide an arrival zone along one face of the building that is for shuttle  buses, taxis.

The open space should clearly establish a visual demarcation line between pedestrians and vehicles.

Arrival zone configuration must accommodate turning radius and loading  for coach buses.

Off-site, directional signage to parking area should be provided on the major approaches to the property to separate attendees whose first stop is the parking area.

On  site,  traffic flow should allow  convenient access  to Parking for those vehicles unloading passen­gers at the door.

Registration and Prefunction

Large-scale registration should occur either just inside the arrival zone or in prefunction space outside of the exhibit hall.

Depth of space should allow for registration nodes to be set up in lobby vestibules so as not to interfere with lateral circulation.

Exhibition Space

It is the heart of the convention center. The basic layout of the hall follows a 30-foot by 30-foot grid derived from a 10-foot by 10-foot booth(1). The exhibit hall should be divisible into four or five roughly equal sections using operable walls. The minimum clear height to any obstruction should 6e 30 feet

Meeting Rooms

Rooms are to be subdivided with movable partitions at 30 feet on center, with the minimum room division a 30 ft . x 60 ft. module using a 30-foot structural grid.(2)

Service corridors provide access to the rear of meeting rooms. The layout should provide service access to all meeting and banquet rooms without crossing public spaces.


The ballroom is a large, column free space that should be divisible into at least

three sections. Clear height to ceiling obstructions should be 30 feet.

The highest level of service in the ballroom will be for banquet func­ tions. At 50,000 square feet, this room should be able to serve 3,000 people comfortably using 72-inch diameter tables.

Lectures or similar presentations using theater-style seating could host up to 4,000 people.(3)

Back-of-House and Loading Dock

Should have direct access from the loading dock into the exhibit hall to facilitate move-in/move-out.

Each hall division shall have own service entrance. Cross circulation shall allow each vehicle parking space to have access to each hall service entrance.

Client Support Areas

Public restrooms, telephone alcoves and a concierge service or infor­mation desk, temporary show offices, dedicated registration storage spaces and central recording rooms should be provided for event man age ment.

Public Movement Pattern for Convention Centers

Communication and functionality can be improved by implementing efficient circulation pattern. People visiting or working can be divided into following cate­gories:

General Public Flow

Dignified personalities are invited depending on the nature of conference. They can also have relatives and public guests invited by organization.

Public guests also have access to the exhibition areas and hence these areas should have a seprate access to manage the public flow during peak hours effi­ciently.

Delegates Flow

Delegates form the most important group of users for a Convention Center. They must be able to find the level of their event and easily find rooms registration and facilities on each level. An unobstructed delegate movement is very important

VIP Flow

They shall directly lead to the main hall or shall enter through the VIP entrance which is connected to a VIP lounge. Usually escorted by a staff member or Client.

Staff Flow

The staff can be divided into two categories:


Technical staff: who are responsible for the efficient working of the Convention Center.

Administrative Staff: exposed to the people coming to the center. Paths of the technical and administrative staff diverse at the staff entrance

Performers Flow

A green room and stage door is required for access via front of house and back of house. Performers will need access to backstage dressing rooms.

Speaker Flow

Speakers will need access to back stage dressing rooms and speakers presenta­ tion areas. Speakers may also be offered access to the VIP suite.

Journalist Flow

It includes press people, cameraman and diplomats. They shall have a direct access to the documentation center and the TV studio of the Convention Center.

Client Flow

The client will need to have access to public, delegate, performer, VIP and speaker areas in addition to their registration, client office and store


The three-dimensional volume of an auditorium is conditioned by the need for all members of the audience to be able to see the whole of the platform or stage; and to hear the actor, singer, musician or speaker.


Auditorium Design

Audience requirements

Every member of audience should be able to see and hear clearly whatever is happening.

The greater the encirclement of the audience of platform or stage, more people can by accommodated within the aural and visual lim­itations up to180°encirclement.

Number of seats in a row

With traditional seating maximum number is 22 if there are gangways at both ends of the row,and 11 for gangway a tone end. Rows with more than 22 seats are permitted if the audience is not thereby imperiled.

Row-to-row spacing

Spacing is controlled by the clearway between the leading edge of the seat and the rear of the back of the seat in front.

For traditional seating the minimum clearway for people to pass along the row is 300 mm and this dimension increases with the number of seats in a row.

For continental seating the clearway is not less than 400 mm and not more than500 mm.


Gangways are essential escape routes, their widths are determined by the number of seats served.

8.5%if likely to be used by people in wheelchairs.

Seating geometry

Seating is usually laid out in straight or curved rows focused  to wards the platform or stage . Further forms  are angled  row with curved change  of  direction and  straight rows with in emphasized blocks Of seats.

Seating Density

Seats with arms and tippable seat can occupy a space as small as 500 mm wide with a row-to-row dimension of 760 mm; but can be as large as 750 mm wide by 1400 mm. The area per seat therefore varies between 0.38m2 and 3.05m2.

Sight lines for a Seated Audience

For every member of the audience to have an uninterrupted view of the platform or stage over the heads in front and clear of overhangs the section and plan of the auaitorium need to conform to certain limitations set by vertical and horizontal sightlines.

Wheelchair Location:Regulations  require  a  minimum  of  six  places  for  wheelchair  users,  or 1/1OOth of the audience capacity, whichever if the greater. Their location as discrete areas can be at the rear, front, side or within the seating.

Wheelchair location

Regulations require a minimum of six places for wheelchair users, or 1/100th of audience capacity,

Whichever if the greater. Their location as discrete areas can be at the rear, front, side or within the


Means of Escape

Travel distance:

The maximum travel distance from seat to exit with in the auditorium is deter­ mined by the need to evacuate from each level of the auditorium within 2% minutes.

For traditional seating the maximum travel distance is 18 m measured from the gangway, for continental seating 15 m from any seat.


From each level of the auditorium two separate exits must be provided for the first 500 seats with an additional exit for each further 250 seats.

Each exit from the auditorium must lead directly to a place of safety.


Staircase flights should have at least two  risers and not more than  16. All treads should be 275 mm and risers 180 mm.


Wheelchair  users  should  be  provided with flat  or  ramped  escape  routes which may be separate from other routes.

Ramps Should not be  longer than 4.5m or steeper than 8.5%.

Total exit widths required by legislation

Conference Rooms

Room  provided  for  singular  events  such  as  business  conferences and meetings. Sometimes other rooms are modified for large conferences  such  as  arenas  or  concert  halls.  Can  be  windowless  for security purposes.

Space Standards

Consideration must be given to clearances and circulation around the larger conference table as  indicated in Figure

Exhibition Galleries

An exhibition,  is an organized  presentation and display of a selection of  items. This flexible space is intended to be the heart of the Convention Center.

The physical layout should meet the basic requirements of an exhibit hall and the overall room should be divisible into roughly equal size compartments.

General planning

The relationship between functios are common to all museum and art galleries.

The figure a  show collection item movements in the operation of collection services, but not

Every operation necessarily requires a separate space, and some services may be provided

by outside agencies.

As far as possible, collection movement and public circulation should be kept separate.

Figure b shows one approach to zoning and expansion based on this principle.

Space standard

Basic layout follows 30 feet by 30 feet grid derived from 10 feet by 10 feet booth. The booth-asile-booth module may be arranged along either axis depending on the particular event’s organization or preference for flow.

Column- free exhibition halls are more desirable. If column are used, column spacing on a multiple of 30 feet with a 90 feet square minimum. Exhibit hall should be divisible into four or five roughly equal

Sections using operable walls. The minimum clear height should be 30 feet.

Entrance and exit – Queue management 


place where people pay sit and eat meal that are cooked and served on the permises. Various restaurants are classified based upon menu style, preparation methods and pricing.

Relationship main elements:

Dependent on the type of facility.

Kitchen and preparation areas are equal about 50% of dining space.

Ancillary and storage – 1.5 – 2 times the kitchen area.

Space standard

Should be planned so that a variety of seating arrangements are possible

To eat comfortably, a person requires a table 600mm wide and 400 mm deep. Area required per person ranges from 1.3-1.9 m2.

Services asiles- minimum 900mm to 1350mm used both by trolleys and guests.

Must be clarity in organization between self service, fast food, etc. and a separate smoking area.

Bar services

To encourage business from non- diners the main bar may have an external entrance. A fairly long bar counter  supported by bar store and place for seating should be provided.

Cocktail lounge (confortable) 1.8-2.0 m2 per person.

General bar (some standing and on stools)1.3-1.7 m2 per person.

Central kitchen

Kitchen reqirements vary depending on preparation method used. The capacity of the kitchen is primarily dependent on the number of customer seats, customer expectations and the proportion of raw materials which have to be freshly prepared.

Group catering for large number of people requires labour saving mechanization and automatic units programmed kitchen

from meals plan, through goods procurement to meal distribution and crockery cleaning fro more than 800-1000 table places.

Allows approximents 50% extra for staff toilets (0.4m2 / person), locker and changing room (0.6m2/person).

The kitchen should be planned on one level to serve all catering outlets.

If this is not possible, the main kitchen should be on the same level as the main restaurant, with preparation and

Stores on different level.

Banqueting service area not next to kitchen should be linked by service lifts and stairs and have their own forward

service equipment.

Certain of the preparation processes may be located in seprate floors. A bakery for example, may be tucked out of

the way, but thought must be given to the flow of materials to and away from the area.

Generally the plan is a contiguous process, always moving forward from one step to the next, with back- tracking

Limited as far as possible.

Vertical circulation


Reqiure for contious mass transportation of people

Standard dimensions for various depth are prescribes

in following table


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