A “mall” means a road or anavenue with shops.
Shopping mall in general means “it is a group of stores or shops in a building.”
It generally, contains one anchor store, which consumes25%of its retail space and contains specialty stores for clothes, accessories, home needs, books, as well as food court, multiplexes and entertainment zones
The concept of Shopping malls malls first appeared in 1950s .the credit towards invention of modern mall goes to Australian born architect and American immigrant victor Green.
The first generation of malls was set up in North gate Mall, us in 15950.
Northland shopping center was constructed by Victor Green in the Us in 1950.
Gulf gate Mall in Houston was an open air shopping center for customers
The shopping malls came into being in the beginning of the 20th century and the idea came from old covered marketplaces that were popular between the 10th and 15th centuris, and are even still around today.
LIMITATIONS AND CRITICISM OF MALL
There are certain limitations and criticisms of malls which are as follows
–Limited to Metro cities
-Lose of Personal touch with shop Owners
Types of mall
The Table below shows the key differences between tyes of Mall Shopping center’s, as per ICSC
types of layout
Tenant are defined based on their size
Significant dimension is along the mall as this involves the widths, I, e, frontages, of stores.
Often used spaces are 6m,7.5m or 9m (20,25 and 30ft.), with the last the most flexible.
Dimension from mall to rear of store can be set by the most economical structural system
SHOP SIZES & LAYOUT
Stock replenishment waste removal usually through a rear service road.
In a shopping complex this may be accessed through a service corridor and goods lift
Some pedestrianized precincts allow vehicle access to front of shops out side restricted hours.
A tenant of greater than 50,00sq.ft. that provides a wide range of goods segmented into department , with a heavy focus in food and groceries.
At least 20% of floorspace or NLA would be dedicated to food & groceries.
A retail tenant of greater than 50,000sq. Ft. that provides a wide range of goods ( e.g. apparel, ciosmetics, homewares) segmented into department.
Would typically have less than 20% of NLA dedicated to food & groceries of F&B
A tenant of between 10,000 and 50,000 sq. ft. of which 80% of floorspace or NLA is dedicated to a wide range of food & groceries.
These are required to provide continuous mass vertical. The angles of inclination of an escalator are 30* and 35* and it is the most widely used transport method in malls and other shopping complexes
To transport people with parms, wheelchairs and other goods easily travelators are used, the angle of inclination is 12 degree and 21 degree.
Quality service or acceptable interval
20 to 25 second excellent
30 to 35 second good
34 to 40 second fair
45 second poor
Over 45 seconds unsatisfactory
Arrangements of lift
Place where people pay to sit and eat meals that are cooked and served on the premises. Various restaurants are classified based upon menu style, preparation methods and pricing.
Relationship to main elements:
Dependent on the type of facility.
Kitchen and preparation area equals about 50% of dining space.
Cocktail lounge (comfortable 1.8-2.0 m2 per person)
General bar (some standing and on stools 1.3-1.7 m2 per person)
– Four standard types of film are described by their width: 8 mm, 16 mm ,35 mm and 70 mm.
–Each has its appropriate type of employment , screen size and cinema/ auditorium
A Projection room is not required for 8 mm film but is a statutory requirement for 16 mm , 35 mm 70 mm fili
Minimum equipment equipmentm:3.9*4m
Floor- to – ceiling height should be not less than 6.4
Parking spaces may be parallel , perpendicular, or angled to the driving lane or aisle
Every basement shall be in every part at least 2.4 m in height from the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling.
The access shall be seprate from the main and alternative stairacse providing access and from higher floors.
The design of space between buildings is as important as that of the buildings themselves.
The design of external spaces outside and between buildings ,whether urban or rural, public or private, covers a wide variety of elements and requires considerable knowledge of the location , materials and construction ,All too often parsimony results in schemes which are unsatisfactory both aesthetically and practically.
Basic human dimensions:
The space requirements of people outside buildings are generally similar to those inside.
A family group of six people on a lawn or terrace occupy a rough circle 4 m diameter becomes 6 m, which is the minimum useful size .
Full physical ability is a temporary condition.
Most people become less than fully mobile at some time , perhaps carrying shopping or parcels; pregnancy ; a sprained ankle ;a dizzy spell ; a broken high- heeled shoe; or just the normal course of ageing.
Circulation routes should be planned bearing this in mind , integrating a design that is both facilities for ‘ the Specially abled.
Widths of pedestrian routes
FIRE SAFETY NORMS
Capacities of Exits
The unit of exit width, used to measure the capacity of any exit, shall be 500 mm.
A clear with of 250 mm shall be counted as an additional half unit. Clear widths less than 250 mm shall not be counted for exit width.
The travel distance to an exit from the dead end of a corridor shall not exceed 30 m in case of assembly buildings
No exit doorway shall be less than 1000 mm in width except assembly buildings where door width shall be not less than 2000 mm.
Doorways shall be not less than 200 mm in height.
Stairways and ramps
The minimum width of tread shall be 300mm and the maximum height of riser shall be 150mm for merchantile buildings.
The minimum width for a staircase shall be 2m.
The minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2m of a ramp.
The sloe of ramp shall shall not exced 1 in 10.in certain cases steper slopes maybe permitted but in no case greater than 1 in 8.
Corridors and Passageways
Where stairways discharge through corridors and passageways, the height of corridors and passageways shall be not less than 2.4m
All means of exit including staircases lifts lobbies and corridors shall be adequately ventilated.
Internal staircase minimum width shall be 2.0m in all group f building.
ARRANGEMENT OF EXITS
Exits shall be so located that the travel, distance on the floor shall not exceed the distance of 30 m. in case of all mercantile building.
Eternal stairs, when provided shall comply the following:
It shall always be kept in sound operable conditions.
Shall be directly connected to the ground.
Shall be constructed of non- combustible.
Shall have straight fight not less than 1250 mm wide with 250mm treads and risers not more than 190 mm.
The number of risers shall be limited to 150 per fight.
Handrails height not less than 1000 mm and not exceeding 1200 mm and provisions of balusters with maximum gap 150 mm
The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to low occupant load and to a building not exceeding 9 m in height.
A spiral stair case shall be not less than 1500 mm in diameter and shall be designed to give adequate headroom.
Pressurization of Staircases ( Protect Escape Routes)
The pressurization of staircase shall be adopted for high rise buildings and building having mixed occupancy/ multiplexes having covered area more than 500 m2.
For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge area of 15 m2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m2 pe person to occomdate of two consecutive floors.
General Fire Protection Measures
A hight Rise building during construction shall be provided with the following fire protection measures, which shall be maintained in good working condition at all the times
Dry rise of minimum 100 mm diameter pipe with hydrant outlets on the floors constructed with a fire service inlet to boost The water in the dry riser and main tenance should be as per the requirements laid down in good practice
Drums tilled with waster of 2000 litres capactity with two fire buckets on each floor; and
A water storage tank of minimum 20000 litres capacity, which may be used for other construction purposes also.
The air exchange rate should have a minimum of 15 air changes per hour.
The exhaust air should be discharged to exterior of the building at a position at least 2 m above the pavement level and at
least 5 m from any window ore fresh air intake
Minimum requirements for fire
SOURCE :- NEUFERT