Shopping Mall


A “mall” means a road or anavenue with shops.

Shopping mall in general means “it is a group of stores or shops in a building.”

It generally, contains one anchor store, which consumes25%of its retail space and contains specialty stores for clothes, accessories, home needs, books, as well as food court, multiplexes and entertainment zones


The concept of Shopping malls  malls first appeared in 1950s .the credit towards invention of modern mall goes to Australian born architect and  American immigrant victor Green.

The first generation  of malls was set up in North gate Mall, us in 15950.

Northland shopping center was constructed by Victor Green in the Us in 1950.

Gulf gate Mall in Houston was an open air shopping center for customers


The shopping malls came into being in the beginning of the 20th century and the idea came from old covered marketplaces that were popular between the 10th and 15th centuris, and are even still around today.


There are certain limitations and criticisms of malls which are as follows

Limited to Metro cities

-Lose of Personal touch with shop Owners

-Unplanned Expenditure



Types of mall

The Table below shows the key differences between tyes of Mall Shopping center’s, as per ICSC

types of layout

Tenant definition

Tenant are defined based on their size


column spacing

Significant dimension is along the mall as this involves the widths,  I, e, frontages, of stores.

Often used spaces are 6m,7.5m or 9m (20,25 and 30ft.), with the last the most flexible.

Dimension from mall to rear of store can be set by the most economical structural  system


store layout


Stock replenishment waste removal usually through a rear service road.

In a shopping complex this may be accessed through a service corridor and goods lift

Some pedestrianized precincts allow vehicle access to front of shops out side restricted hours.


A tenant of greater than 50,00sq.ft. that provides a wide range of goods segmented into department , with a heavy focus in food and groceries.

At  least 20% of  floorspace or NLA would be dedicated to food & groceries.


A retail tenant of greater than 50,000sq. Ft. that provides a wide range of goods ( e.g. apparel, ciosmetics, homewares) segmented into department.

Would typically have less than 20% of NLA dedicated to food & groceries of F&B


A tenant of between 10,000 and 50,000 sq. ft. of which  80% of  floorspace or NLA  is dedicated to a wide range of food & groceries.



These are required to provide continuous mass vertical. The angles of inclination of an escalator are 30* and 35* and it is the most widely used transport method in malls and other shopping complexes


To transport people with parms, wheelchairs and other goods easily travelators are used, the angle of inclination is 12 degree and 21 degree.


Quality service or acceptable interval

20 to 25 second excellent

30 to 35 second good

34 to 40 second fair

45 second poor

Over 45 seconds unsatisfactory   

Arrangements of lift


Place where people pay to sit and eat meals that are cooked and served on the premises. Various restaurants are classified based upon menu style, preparation methods and pricing.

Relationship to main elements:

Dependent on the type of facility.

Kitchen and preparation area equals about 50% of dining space.


Cocktail lounge (comfortable 1.8-2.0 m2 per person)

General bar (some standing and on stools 1.3-1.7 m2 per person)

Toilet facilities


 – Four standard types of film are described by their width: 8 mm, 16 mm ,35 mm and 70 mm.

Each has its appropriate type of employment , screen size and cinema/ auditorium


 A Projection room is not required for 8 mm film but is a statutory requirement for 16 mm , 35 mm 70 mm fili

Minimum equipment equipmentm:3.9*4m

Floor- to – ceiling height should be not less than 6.4


surface parking

Parking spaces may be parallel , perpendicular, or angled to the driving lane or aisle

basement parking

Every basement shall be in every part at least 2.4 m in height from the floor to the underside of the roof slab or ceiling.

The access shall be seprate from the main and alternative stairacse providing access and from higher floors.

ramp system


The design of space between buildings is as important as that of the buildings themselves.

 The design of external spaces outside and between buildings ,whether  urban or rural, public or private, covers a wide variety of elements and requires considerable knowledge of the location , materials and construction ,All too often parsimony results in schemes which are unsatisfactory both aesthetically and practically.

 Basic human dimensions:

The space requirements of people outside buildings are generally similar to those inside.

A family group of six people on a lawn or terrace occupy a rough circle 4 m diameter becomes 6 m, which  is the minimum useful size .


Full physical ability is a temporary condition.

Most people become less than fully mobile at some time , perhaps carrying shopping or parcels; pregnancy ; a sprained ankle ;a dizzy spell ; a broken high- heeled shoe; or just the normal course of ageing.

Circulation routes should be planned bearing this in mind , integrating a design that is both facilities for ‘ the Specially abled.

Widths of pedestrian routes


Capacities of Exits

The unit of exit width, used  to measure the capacity of any exit, shall be 500 mm.

A clear with  of 250 mm shall be counted as an additional half unit. Clear widths less than 250 mm shall not be counted for exit width.

The travel distance to an exit from the dead end of a corridor shall not exceed 30 m in  case of assembly buildings


No exit doorway shall be less than 1000 mm in width except assembly buildings where door width shall be not less than 2000 mm.

Doorways shall be not less than 200 mm in height.

Stairways and ramps

The minimum width of tread shall be 300mm and the maximum height of riser shall be 150mm for  merchantile  buildings.

The minimum width for a staircase shall be 2m.

The minimum headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2.2m of a ramp.

The  sloe of ramp shall shall  not exced 1 in certain cases steper slopes maybe permitted but in no case greater than 1 in 8.

Corridors and Passageways

Where stairways discharge through corridors and passageways, the height of  corridors and passageways shall be not less than 2.4m

All means of exit including staircases lifts lobbies and corridors shall be adequately ventilated.

Internal staircase minimum width shall be 2.0m in all group f building.


Exits shall be so located that the travel, distance on the floor shall not exceed the distance of 30 m. in case of all mercantile building.


Eternal stairs, when provided shall comply the following:

It shall always be kept in sound operable conditions.

Shall be directly  connected to the ground.

Shall be constructed of non- combustible.

Shall have straight fight not less than 1250 mm wide with 250mm treads and risers not more than 190 mm.

The number of risers shall be limited to 150 per fight.

Handrails height not less than 1000 mm and not exceeding 1200 mm and provisions of  balusters with maximum gap 150 mm

The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to low occupant load and to a building not exceeding 9 m in height.

A spiral stair case shall be not less than 1500 mm in diameter and shall be designed to give adequate headroom.

Pressurization of Staircases ( Protect Escape Routes)

The pressurization of staircase shall be adopted for high rise buildings and building having mixed occupancy/ multiplexes having covered area more than 500 m2.

 Horizontal Exits

For buildings more than 24 m in height, refuge area of 15 m2 or an area equivalent to 0.3 m2 pe person to occomdate of two consecutive floors.

  General Fire Protection Measures

A hight Rise building during construction shall be provided with the following fire protection measures, which shall be maintained in good working condition at all  the times

Dry rise of minimum 100 mm diameter pipe with hydrant outlets on the floors constructed with a fire service inlet to boost The water in the dry riser and main tenance should be as per the requirements laid down in good practice

Drums tilled with waster of 2000 litres capactity with two fire buckets on each floor; and

A water storage tank of minimum 20000 litres capacity, which may be used for other construction purposes also.


The air exchange rate should have a minimum of 15 air changes per hour.

The exhaust air should be discharged to exterior of the building at a position at least 2 m above the pavement level and at

least 5 m from any window ore fresh air intake

Minimum requirements for fire


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